Tuckman (1965) suggest that, to become a team a group must go through 4 development stages (listed below). Each group varies with what stage they are at and how fast/slow they progress through (or how long they stay in each one) In most cases a team will revert back to one, ounces a new player join in or a younger person wants a bigger role within the group and so on.
Coming together, they formularise themselves with each other deciding if they want to be within the group and if they belong. Group members start to assign roles within it and people deciding if they want to commit. Formal managers tend to be more direct and in charge during this stage.
A leader might emerge here but more than likely he would be a prescribed Leader and has no choice but to be a leader of the group. This could be a manager, coach joining a team. A specific example would be Herman Bonne, in the Remember the Titians. (Video) (information)
He brought the blacks and the white college football team together (The colleges had merged). He talked about having ‘Fun’ this season and wearing a ‘jacket, shirt and tie’. He also states, “This is no democracy this is a dictatorship.”
Right away you can tell he is the leader of the group and this won’t change as they go through each process. But normally it might take till after the next stage to find a designated or emergent leader one because those connections haven’t fully formed and the leader still hasn’t proved themselves.
Fight/conflict for places within the group. People not liking their position and want to do more or be more in the group. They resist or challenge the leader. Normally this is due to players going under pressure and want more important roles, or the more popular roles. At this stage you could find it goes back to stage one as a new leader, captain and/or the whole thing gets switched up. Or a leader can show to the group why he is leader, and everyone falls into their places with maybe a few minor changes.
A leader might emerge here, but equally, would be at the end of this stage. This stage is where a coach and/or manager proves themselves.
An example of a coach not proving themselves. Claudio Ranieri, he won the Premier league with Leicester but once they sacked him, he only lasted 106 days at Fullam. (Here) This was probably because he was unable to pass this stage (of course along with other things, like maybe they didn’t match but I am using him for this example) There was probably still a conflict with him and they players ‘behind close doors’ which didn’t allow them to fully work together. A perfect example of a team who never passed the storming stage.
An example of a coach proving themselves. Alex Ferguson, (Link) His first few seasons almost resulted in him being sacked. — begin quote– At the start of his, Manchester United manager carrier he (long before he was made a Knight of the Realm) His side struggled at the wrong end of the Division One table. A run of eight games without a win saw the once-great Red Devils staring relegation in the face.
The accepted story is that Ferguson would have been sacked if they had been knocked out of the FA Cup by Nottingham Forest on January 7. The game proved to be a reprieve from those calling for his head, but – possibly until the recent 6-1 hammering by rivals Man City – the time remains by his own admission his ‘darkest period’ as a manager. –end quote—
This would have been him in the storming stage and just moving into the forming as players have not fully come together yet and aren’t inclined to win for him or the team and he was able to prove himself and become one of the best managers football has ever had.
How it relates to Forming
This stage would quickly follow, as players would feel they deserve better than the role they were given. Maybe to coach has played a few players out of position. A group of people have come together to play a sport and are uncomfortable. Forming doesn’t normally last a long time and would move into the storming stage. Sometimes teams will never pass this stage. The forming stages will involve people trying to get to know each other while the storming stage is the complete opposite.
Coming together. The conflict in the past stage has calmed down and has switched to cooperation. The members have a clear goal they all want. As this happens group satisfaction increases as tasks get completed. This is where people get more involved and start to see the vision that only a few could see before. You passed the hard stage but if another person joins or other leaves than it can drag you back to stage 1. If there is someone in the group who want a bigger role it could drag you right back a stage.
This is where a leader will emerge. This would be when the conflict ends, and the ‘real’ leaders have stepped forward or have replaced others. They have managed to stop the conflict within the groups. A sporting example would be Manchester united at the moment. They begging /middle of the season they were doing ok but were 11/12 point behind 4th place, Chelsea. They were able to bring in a player, Bruno Fernandes. He’s been able to be a key player for the team and has taken a large leadership role at the club. ((Link) As a man united legend states “He’s been a breath of fresh air”.
How it relates to Forming
These stages are very similar, One comes when a group is first meeting. They should be interacting relatively well. Some people in the group would be nervous because they are meeting people for the first time and some nerves would be there. While this stage involves the same level of interaction bonds should be starting to grow within the group as they get to know each other and realise the overall goal.
How it relates to Storming
This is a vital thing to happen to a team/leader, if they wish to be successful. To move from the storming stage to the norming stage. It is difficult to stay in this stage as more people join and leave the group. This could result in the team going back to the storming stage. But usually there is a defined line which has been crossed when passing out of the storming stage to norming stage. This is when either a leader has given up ‘or has been perceived to’ given up a little of their power by allowing those in the team a louder voice in the decision making or the people around him, within the group has given up the space because they realise they know better or believe they start to listen to him.
Performance better and more and more goals are being met. The group has a huge amount of motivation and grows in skill level and performance. Normally, if a group reaches this, they will stay in this until they reach the main goal. After that you will see people leave, come or challenge for position or in some cases disband.
I believe if a leader was in the group or if a group is preforming, they already have all of the power struggles sorted out and everyone knows where they stand within the group. If a new leader does emerge the group needs to go back to one of the following stages before progressing back to here, even if it is for a short amount of time. I don’t believe a leader can emerge from this stage because they would already have proved themselves from the previous stages.
An example of this would be Ireland in the six nations in 2018. Everyone was preforming at their best. Our manager at the time created a systematic way of playing rugby, which had been perfected. Everyone knew their roles and places and were able to dominate every team we played. Winning the competition with a game in hand and a plus 50 PD on the table over second place England. (Link)
How it relates to storming
It is important for a team to go through storming to reach this stage as a team can come closer together. It is easy to go from this stage back to storming. A coach might take his power for granted within a group. An international player might be swapped with another which could bring conflict within the group as we seen with john terry and Wayne for England.
How it relates to forming
These stages are at opposite ends but are still relatively similar. Forming is made up of new players/ people coming together while preforming involves a connection between individuals in a group to work. A team normally has to go through a lot to get to this stage but is well worked on.
How it relates to Norming
These stages can go hand in hand. The norming stage brings players together in a group while preforming already has those bonds created. We can see this with Billy Gilmore. In training was when he as in the forming stages getting other, more experienced players, to trust him when he is on the ball. Showing that he won’t lose it all the time and get the team to work even harder when on the ball. He was able to pass onto the preforming stage when given a chance as those around him, on the field, trusted him with the ball and passed to him so he could help the team preform. These two stages connect well.
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