Cohesion

Cohesion is needed for a effective group 

Task cohesion 

This is where you might not like the person but you both know you have a job to do and you get it done. A good example of this would be Ribery and Robben at their primes in Byrne Munich. (link) This link shows they started a fight, not during the game but in between the game of a semi-final. It also describes them as trading insults to each other and squared up to each other.  

Although this type of cohesion is not preferred it can land you some good results as it can be clear to the team that they have set out to do a job. Robben and Ribery where known as the ‘robbery’ at Byrne giving the club another double along with being on the verge of 7 straight Bundesliga’s and DFB cups.  

Social cohesion 

Involves personal relationships within a team and relies on the individual’s enjoyment. This is how most Sunday leagues stay together as it normally ends up costing money to play football every weekend.  

A famous sporting example of this would be. Marcelo and Ronaldo. (link) Although they didn’t get on in the beginning (they were in the storming phase) they became great friends and when Ronaldo was leaving the club. Marcelo cried and saying, “10 years of joy” (how long they were both playing at the club). “I’m going to miss our talks” and so on. They shared a high level of social cohesion.(Link).  

Combined  

(how these are needed to create an effective team climate).  

It’s all great being friend and playing together but if the team doesn’t have any goals (apart from just winning each week) than it can have a less effective performance. You should also want to go through a storming phase and if friends are close on a team, they might have not gone through that in a sport scenario. Maybe they already know their jobs (ie one is better and louder than the other) but the desired one you want is, both, but majority of social cohesion.  

Cohesion in effective group 

Task cohesion 

This is where you might not like the person but you both know you have a job to do and you get it done. A good example of this would be Ribery and Robben at their primes in Byrne Munich. (link) This link shows they started a fight, not during the game but in between the game of a semi-final. It also describes them as trading insults to each other and squared up to each other.  

Although this type of cohesion is not preferred it can land you some good results as it can be clear to the team that they have set out to do a job. Robben and Ribery where known as the ‘robbery’ at Byrne giving the club another double along with being on the verge of 7 straight Bundesliga’s and DFB cups.  

Social cohesion 

Involves personal relationships within a team and relies on the individual’s enjoyment. This is how most Sunday leagues stay together as it normally ends up costing money to play football every weekend.  

A famous sporting example of this would be. Marcelo and Ronaldo. (link) Although they didn’t get on in the beginning (they were in the storming phase) they became great friends and when Ronaldo was leaving the club. Marcelo cried and saying, “10 years of joy” (how long they were both playing at the club). “I’m going to miss our talks” and so on. They shared a high level of social cohesion.(Link).  

Combined  

(how these are needed to create an effective team climate).  

It’s all great being friend and playing together but if the team doesn’t have any goals (apart from just winning each week) than it can have a less effective performance. You should also want to go through a storming phase and if friends are close on a team, they might have not gone through that in a sport scenario. Maybe they already know their jobs (ie one is better and louder than the other) but the desired one you want is, both, but majority of social cohesion.  

Factors affecting cohesion 

Environmental factors 

Groups who members are closer together and have more of an opportunity to bond Like playing with your friends or a school team. You’ve probably known both sets of players a longer time than if you were to join up with a new team and play for them. This could be as simple as not knowing the guy’s name to ask for to ball.  

Member characteristics 

Individual characteristics of the team members, if each player in the team is motivated to achieve an overall goal (it can also be important to consider the team members that have the same background, attitudes and opinions) while holding a similar level of commitment, individually. All this results in a team being more cohesive. An example of this would be Japan in the rugby world cup, where the coach brought his players into one team (outside) of international times (Link for Japan section) as the article states ‘but this didn’t happen overnight’. Bringing international players together before the season even starts allows them to start creating bonds (AND COHESION) EARLY  

leadership styles 

Aspects of a coaching behaviour, leadership styles, behaviours, communication styles and compatibility. Carrying on from the example above; Bringing a them together in a club allows them to create individual bonds. It also helped that head coach and assistant coach Tony Brown took the reins of their season team and international team. They out preformed how they were predicted because of this (I believe) as having the same coach, that they players like, can really improve cohesion as proved by their world cup performance.  

Team elements  

Characteristics, relationship of the group norms and stability. If the team stays together for a long period of time and go through failure success and plate it can bring them closer together increasing their cohesiveness. An example of this would be Japan, explained above.  

(Carron’s antecedents). 

Relationship between cohesion and performance  

Interactive sports like football and rugby demand direct connect between players so cohesion, especially task cohesion is super important. It can still be argued that a connection is needed in coactive sports like archery and golf need less cohesion but if your connection to your caddie isn’t good than it can drain on your energy and take the fun away from the game. It effects interactive sports more than coactive ones.  

Performance can also affect cohesion. Plenty of my former teams didn’t like to pass to a certain player because he stayed up front all the time and don’t come back and help defend. (Plus he wasn’t the fittest person, this effected his performance and made him an unreliable player. I also see it in my nephews team where you have many ball hogs who don’t like to share possession of the ball and 9 times out of 10 will lose it and the team have to work even harder to get it back (but you could argue that, that is cohesion effecting performance. It is believed that this can turn into a cycle through this. The better your team preform the better they get on and so on.  

Giving my example above; if a ball hog passes it a little more than the players are more lily to pass it to him (increase in cohesion) the player still gets to show off his skill and the team keep possession a lot more which means they won’t have to work as hard as the others. (increase in performance. This will also result in the whole team improve on their basics (passing and touches etc i.e. an increase in performance) which brings them closer together (cohesion) and so on… 

Strategies to develop an effective group and cohesion. 

It’s most prominent to start cohesion early. When the stakes are low. I.E preseason training, this gives them a chance to get to know each other and establish group norms and that reliability which is needed in those high stressful situations. It can be important if there’s been a major change to the team i.e. a range of players coming in/out or a new manager or coach coming in with different ideas.   

Coaches, to improve cohesion should implement; good communication, everybody knows what they have to do within the team, change things over time and immediately, set goals and know the individual athletes within the team.  

Team member can; be responsible, know what they are doing, even if it means talking to the coach, Try, get to know each other, Help those in your team who don’t understand.  

Group process // Leadership!

Tuckman (1965) suggest that, to become a team a group must go through 4 development stages (listed below). Each group varies with what stage they are at and how fast/slow they progress through (or how long they stay in each one) In most cases a team will revert back to one, ounces a new player join in or a younger person wants a bigger role within the group and so on.   


Forming 

Coming together, they formularise themselves with each other deciding if they want to be within the group and if they belong. Group members start to assign roles within it and people deciding if they want to commit. Formal managers tend to be more direct and in charge during this stage.  

A leader might emerge here but more than likely he would be a prescribed Leader and has no choice but to be a leader of the group. This could be a manager, coach joining a team. A specific example would be Herman Bonne, in the Remember the Titians. (Video) (information)  

He brought the blacks and the white college football team together (The colleges had merged). He talked about having ‘Fun’ this season and wearing a ‘jacket, shirt and tie’. He also states, “This is no democracy this is a dictatorship.” 

Right away you can tell he is the leader of the group and this won’t change as they go through each process. But normally it might take till after the next stage to find a designated or emergent leader one because those connections haven’t fully formed and the leader still hasn’t proved themselves.  


Storming 

Fight/conflict for places within the group. People not liking their position and want to do more or be more in the group. They resist or challenge the leader. Normally this is due to players going under pressure and want more important roles, or the more popular roles. At this stage you could find it goes back to stage one as a new leader, captain and/or the whole thing gets switched up. Or a leader can show to the group why he is leader, and everyone falls into their places with maybe a few minor changes.  

A leader might emerge here, but equally, would be at the end of this stage. This stage is where a coach and/or manager proves themselves.  

An example of a coach not proving themselves. Claudio Ranieri, he won the Premier league with Leicester but once they sacked him, he only lasted 106 days at Fullam. (Here)   This was probably because he was unable to pass this stage (of course along with other things, like maybe they didn’t match but I am using him for this example) There was probably still a conflict with him and they players ‘behind close doors’ which didn’t allow them to fully work together. A perfect example of a team who never passed the storming stage. 

An example of a coach proving themselves. Alex Ferguson, (Link) His first few seasons almost resulted in him being sacked. — begin quote– At the start of his, Manchester United manager carrier he (long before he was made a Knight of the Realm) His side struggled at the wrong end of the Division One table. A run of eight games without a win saw the once-great Red Devils staring relegation in the face.  

The accepted story is that Ferguson would have been sacked if they had been knocked out of the FA Cup by Nottingham Forest on January 7. The game proved to be a reprieve from those calling for his head, but – possibly until the recent 6-1 hammering by rivals Man City – the time remains by his own admission his ‘darkest period’ as a manager. –end quote 

This would have been him in the storming stage and just moving into the forming as players have not fully come together yet and aren’t inclined to win for him or the team and he was able to prove himself and become one of the best managers football has ever had.  

How it relates to Forming  

This stage would quickly follow, as players would feel they deserve better than the role they were given. Maybe to coach has played a few players out of position. A group of people have come together to play a sport and are uncomfortable. Forming doesn’t normally last a long time and would move into the storming stage. Sometimes teams will never pass this stage. The forming stages will involve people trying to get to know each other while the storming stage is the complete opposite.    


Norming 

Coming together. The conflict in the past stage has calmed down and has switched to cooperation. The members have a clear goal they all want. As this happens group satisfaction increases as tasks get completed. This is where people get more involved and start to see the vision that only a few could see before. You passed the hard stage but if another person joins or other leaves than it can drag you back to stage 1. If there is someone in the group who want a bigger role it could drag you right back a stage. 

This is where a leader will emerge. This would be when the conflict ends, and the ‘real’ leaders have stepped forward or have replaced others. They have managed to stop the conflict within the groups.  A sporting example would be Manchester united at the moment. They begging /middle of the season they were doing ok but were 11/12 point behind 4th place, Chelsea. They were able to bring in a player, Bruno Fernandes. He’s been able to be a key player for the team and has taken a large leadership role at the club. ((Link) As a man united legend states “He’s been a breath of fresh air”.  

How it relates to Forming  

These stages are very similar, One comes when a group is first meeting. They should be interacting relatively well. Some people in the group would be nervous because they are meeting people for the first time and some nerves would be there. While this stage involves the same level of interaction bonds should be starting to grow within the group as they get to know each other and realise the overall goal.  

How it relates to Storming  

This is a vital thing to happen to a team/leader, if they wish to be successful. To move from the storming stage to the norming stage. It is difficult to stay in this stage as more people join and leave the group. This could result in the team going back to the storming stage. But usually there is a defined line which has been crossed when passing out of the storming stage to norming stage. This is when either a leader has given up ‘or has been perceived to’ given up a little of their power by allowing those in the team a louder voice in the decision making or the people around him, within the group has given up the space because they realise they know better or believe they start to listen to him.  


Performing 

Performance better and more and more goals are being met. The group has a huge amount of motivation and grows in skill level and performance. Normally, if a group reaches this, they will stay in this until they reach the main goal. After that you will see people leave, come or challenge for position or in some cases disband.  

I believe if a leader was in the group or if a group is preforming, they already have all of the power struggles sorted out and everyone knows where they stand within the group. If a new leader does emerge the group needs to go back to one of the following stages before progressing back to here, even if it is for a short amount of time. I don’t believe a leader can emerge from this stage because they would already have proved themselves from the previous stages.  

An example of this would be Ireland in the six nations in 2018. Everyone was preforming at their best. Our manager at the time created a systematic way of playing rugby, which had been perfected. Everyone knew their roles and places and were able to dominate every team we played. Winning the competition with a game in hand and a plus 50 PD on the table over second place England. (Link) 

How it relates to storming  

It is important for a team to go through storming to reach this stage as a team can come closer together. It is easy to go from this stage back to storming. A coach might take his power for granted within a group. An international player might be swapped with another which could bring conflict within the group as we seen with john terry and Wayne for England.  

How it relates to forming  

These stages are at opposite ends but are still relatively similar. Forming is made up of new players/ people coming together while preforming involves a connection between individuals in a group to work. A team normally has to go through a lot to get to this stage but is well worked on.  

How it relates to Norming  

These stages can go hand in hand. The norming stage brings players together in a group while preforming already has those bonds created. We can see this with Billy Gilmore. In training was when he as in the forming stages getting other, more experienced players, to trust him when he is on the ball. Showing that he won’t lose it all the time and get the team to work even harder when on the ball. He was able to pass onto the preforming stage when given a chance as those around him, on the field, trusted him with the ball and passed to him so he could help the team preform. These two stages connect well. 


Cohesion

Cohesion is needed for a effective group  Task cohesion  This is where you might not like the person but you both know you have a job to do and you get it done. A good example of this would be Ribery and Robben at their primes in Byrne Munich. (link) This link shows they startedContinue reading “Cohesion”

Merry Christmas and happy new year!

I plan on writing a lot more in the new year. I will be looking to write a lot more. A problem I have is I set this website (and business) up to promote or be a personal trainer but I need to a certificate for that and I still need to get it. At the same time I am looking to get to be a strength and conditioning coach.

What does this mean? This page, as I explain on the home page, will be a blog for a while. I have never done that before. I’m still not to sure how to write it up and how much time I need to put into each one and I guess I’m figuring it out but anyway More to come in 2020 and I should be able to post more.

Hope your all having a great break and getting ready to come back strong in 2020!

Challenge of the week…

  • Easy level…
  • Press up x50 rep
  • squats x50 rep
  • burpees x50 rep
  • Mid level…
  • shoulder tap push ups ( tap both shoulders with opposite hand and do push up) x30
  • Jump squat x30
  • push up burpee x30 (If you can go through it 1 more time)
  • Hard
  • jumping press up x50
  • jumping squat into lunges (1 squat, jump into a lung with left leg forward then jump switch legs and that 1 rep) x50
  • push up burpee x60

Post your time in the comment!

Also tell me how difficult it was. Should next weeks be harder? easier? I might also create 2 to 3 different challenges in a week or a month. Let me know how you get on and ill be posting my time in the comments too.

Marginal Gains

First implemented by the great British cycling team in the London 2012 Olympics. The Idea comes from breaking down everything you do it sections and increase a single section by 1% each week or, even better, each day. Pointless I hear you cry? well let me explain…

1% might not seem that much over the sort term but if you think about it over a long period of time and add all the 1% up you end up having a dramatic increase in your performance.

The British cycling coach In the training and competition got his athletes to sleep in the same position with the same pillow when traveling, He also got them to go to bed at the same time each night. Things like these may not seem like much. Does it really matter that I get to sleep at 8 or 9 as many nights as I can? Will that really change anything? The answer is more complicated than just a yes or no answer but the short answer is most of the time. Let me explain…

It’s similar to compound interest. What you invest (the 1%) might not seem like a big thing to you in the near future but as time goes by your performance will greatly increase.

A sporting example would be comparing what you do to your competitors. Your competitors do the same as you, the same amount of training but your concentrating on marginal gains. You improve your game by going to bed at the same time, removing one or two pices of clothing to become lighter to be able to go faster in your chosen sport etc. Your competitor doesn’t. Now your competition is coming up. You both have trained and eaten the same amount. You gain an advantage as you have been able to move that bit quicker in training (even if it only my milliseconds), Your body better understands that’s it’s time to work rather than thinking it’s time to sleep.

You see all those things don’t mean much on their own but if you add them together it can be the difference between you losing and winning.

A great book to learn more are

Amazon.co.uk Widgets

Using this theory how can we use it in our lives?

What can we do to ‘mirror’ the british cycling team who seem to keeping winning gold at the Olympics.

Weightlifting

How can marginal gains help a weight lifter or weightlifting?

Learning the correct form to start. Incorrect form can lead to injury, a lighter (or heavier) weight than you can actually lift. Concentrating on this before every lift can implant it into your brain so as time goes by you think about it less and less, keeping your form, allowing you to focus on lifting the actual weight.

You could introduce things like holding your hands on different parts of the bar. For example bench press. The further out your hands go, from the centre of the bar, the harder it is to lift but the shorter distance you have to lift.

Performance in competition

If your a footballer to a swimmer there is always something you can do. Football might be something as simple as using less tape for your socks, getting a haircut so you carry less weight. All on their own seem like nothing but as you slowly add it up it can come to the difference between you and your opponent.

Leading up to a competition. This could be as simple as having the same breakfast as you normally have or if your used to eatting something else before a competitive game or competition. Rather than changing your bedsheets the day before a competition do it after, as a reward.

Normal life

We see this with our bodies without truly seeing it. Have you ever gone to bed late and still got up at the same time? Or you can’t seem to get to bed early. This is your body is in a routine.

This can be interpreted to create happy, healthy habits. January is coming up and you get a lot of people who create new years resolutions. They try to change their lives from 0 to 100 (or 50 to 100 quickly) This is alright but most of the time people fail within the first month.

Why is this and how can we stop people from quitting?

Thinking about this from a 2 floor house. You’re not going to be able to jump from where you are to the top floor (going from 0 to 100) if you do make it, its going to become more and more difficult to go backward and forward (from floor to floor). But if you build a stairs (take the 1%) it will be harder to fall and easier to make it.

I probably took that a little far but you get the basic Idea. If your fitness goals are to get fit. Rather than going from working out once or maybe twice a week to doing it 5 times a week, full force every time you go. Build it up. Go 3 times a week for a month than add another session so you go 4 times a week. Your fitness is a journey not a race.

“Fitness is a journey not a race!”

Same would be for any goal you have. Don’t tire yourself out or burn out your motivation before you even probably begin!

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